Saturday, June 20, 2020

Police Brutality Against African Americans - Free Essay Example

Many African Americans become victims of police brutality due to the systemic racism and criminalization of people of color. African Americans are unfairly targeted by law enforcement and not afforded the same rights and privileges as other races in America. There have been many historic events in our current society surrounding police brutality such as the incidents surrounding Rodney King, Tamir Rice, and Eric Garner. After constantly hearing in the news about unarmed African Americans becoming victims to the police, it is clear that African Americans are directly targeted by the police, more specifically black men. According to U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) statistics from 2014, for all age groups, black male individuals are arrested and have the highest rate of imprisonment in state and federal facilities which rate is 3.8 to 10.5 times more than the rate for white men and 1.4 to 3.1 times more than the rate for Hispanic men (Carson 23). The primary factor that explains these statistics is the fact that Africans Americans as a race are racially profiled by the police. The frequencies of which African Americans have been murdered by the police are not accidental situations, nor are they reflective of the excuses that have come to be standard police responses to these situations; fear of personal safety. Police brutality and racially profiling is also not just about individual officers, but a culture that allows prejudice and violence against communities of color to go unchecked. With the use of new and updated technology like body cameras, these statistics could be reversed because they woul d show proof that majority of these incidents are not justified and prevent officers from targeting black men. On March 2, 1991, an African American man named Rodney Glen King was watching a basketball game and drinking 40-ounce beers at a friends house in suburban Los Angeles. Upon leaving his friends house, he ran a red light and nearly caused an accident. When four officers arrived on the scene, they ordered him to get out of the car and get on the ground. At first, he did not comply and just smiled at the scenery around him. The officers described him as having bizarre behavior and a spaced-out look, which they used to try to justify their actions. King was able to successfully avoid a swarming maneuver that the officers tried to use still able to rise to his feet despite being hit twice by an electric stun gun. This is when the officers started to strike them with metal batons and kick him repeatedly, even after him repeatedly saying please stop. A year later, on April 29, 1992 four Los Angeles Police Department officers were acquitted on the beating of Rodney King. There was an 81 secon d video of the beating, that showed a group of officers kicking, stomping, and beating on him with metal batons in an intersection in South Los Angeles. Since it was caught on video, it sparked a national debate about police brutality and injustice. Despite the videotape being shown in court, a jury in Simi Valley concluded a year that the evidence was not sufficient to convict the officers (Owens and Browning 153). Within hours of the jurys verdict, Los Angeles erupted in riots. When it was over, fifty-four people had lost their lives, over 7,000 people had been arrested, and hundreds of millions of dollars worth of property had been destroyed (Deitz 74). Angry crowds gathered in in cities all across the country. When the officer was not indicted in the beating of Rodney King, that represented the usual outcome of cases involving police and unarmed black man. Twelve-year-old Tamir Rice was fatally shot by and killed by a police officer in at Cudell park in Cleveland, Ohio on November 22, 2014. There was a call to the police department stating that there was an African American male in a park brandishing a firearm, and the caller made sure to say that the suspected firearm was presumed to be fake. The police dispatcher who took the call failed to notify the officers of these details. Within seconds of arriving on the scene, one of the officers fired two shots into Tamir Rices abdomen. For 4 full minutes after being shot, he was not given any first aid. He was with his 14-year-old sister at the time, who the officers pinned and handcuffed, preventing her from comforting her bleeding brother. The officers claimed that Tamir didnt respond to them shouting and him and was reaching for a gun in his waistband, although he was unarmed. The officer that fired the gun, Timothy Loehmann, was an officer in training at the time at claimed that he had no choice but to shoot and kill the twelve-year-old. In the investigation it was noted that Tamir had a toy gun. Days after his death, a video went viral showing that Tamirs body fell to the ground immediately after the police cruiser arrived on the scene. This video along with multiply witness testimonies contradicts the officers claims that they were shouting at Tamir, since they gave him no time to react to any warnings that may have been given. Activists and community leaders appealed to the courts to have the two officers arrested and indicted on the charges of murder and negligent homicide, with the video evidence providing probable charge. On December 28, 2015 a grand jury in Cuyahoga County of Ohio decided not to indict the two white police officers, Timothy Loehmann and Frank Garmback, in the death of Tamir Rice. On July 14, 2014 a 43-year-old African American man named Eric Garner died after being detained by police officers of the New York Police Department in Staten Island, New York. Initially, he was arrested for selling individual cigarettes on the streets, which is illegal. The entire arrest was captured on video and showed Garner being held in a chokehold for at least 15 seconds and pinned to the ground. While pinned to the ground by an officer named Daniel Pantaleo, he repeatedly lets him know that the choke hold is impairing him by saying I cant breathe. He wasnt provided any medical assistance, nor did the officers let up on their choke hold. The New York City Medical Examiners Office autopsy report concluded that the chokehold was responsible for his death since he suffered from asthma. Garners death was ruled a homicide by compression of neck (choke hold), compression of chest and prone positioning during physical restraint by police (Sparrow 25). The grand jury failed to indict t he police officer who killed Garner, which started many civil protests. Protesters chanted I cant breathe, in support of trying to get justice for his death. These are just a few of the hundreds of incidents that have occurred, and as a response to the highly publicized police killings of unarmed black men, many civil rights movements have risen. One of the most known is Black Lives Matter, a movement and national organization whose mission is to build local power and to intervene when violence was inflicted on black communities by the state and vigilantes. It was founded in 2013 by Alicia Garza, Opal Tometti, and Patrisse Cullors, therefore it wasnt around during the time of Rodney Kings police encounter and others around that time. Instead of one large organized movement, there were many separate civil rights movements in the 90s. Unlike those previous civil rights movement, Black Lives Matter is decentralized, and encourages leaders from communities all across this country rather than one leader. One of the three founders, Alicia Garza describes this movement as an ideological and political intervention in a world where black lives are systematically and intentionally targeted for demise (Garza). The enragement surrounding the death of Trayvon Martin after he was shot and killed, then put on trial for his own murder, is what led to the Black Lives Matter Movement. The creation of this movement was a response to the anti-black racism that permeates our society, and also unfortunately previous movements. After the death of Trayvon Martin, it became more prevalent to how many African Americans become victims to police brutality, without receiving any justice. Trayvon Martins case differed than most other cases because he was killed by a civilian, not a police officer. After Trayvons death and the verdict of his case was publicized across our country, other cases became widely publicized as well. It ignited an urge in the black community to organize and fight for a change. As more unarmed Black men and women continued to be killed by police officers in cities around the country, the movement utilized social media platforms, primarily Twitter and Facebook, to organize protests in response to police violence against African Americans . By the end of 2015, the ratio was 6:1 of unarmed black men dying as a result of being shot by the police in the United States. Out of the 102 cases that that took place in 2015 that dealt with unarmed African Americans, only ten resulted in police being charged with a crime (Geller et al 2325). The Black Lives Metter movement aims to changes these statistics and unify our society. Groups associated with Black Lives Matter have advocated for a wide variety of policy changes including body cameras, independent special prosecutors, greater transparency in policing (Fasching-Warner and Hartlep 5). This movement has drawn enormous attention from all sides of the political spectrum at the local and national levels. After hearing about the several incidents surrounding police brutality inflicted on African Americans all around our country, there is a clear pattern. After each story breaks out to the public the police release a statement, officers get placed on leave, protests break out, and the case goes to trial with an outcome of no indictment for the police officers. In each of the cases, white police officers were involved and none of them were held accountable for the beatings or deaths, regardless of them being at fault. This is because they are going around killing unarmed African Americans when it is not necessary and claiming it as self-defense. None of these officers are getting indicted on these crimes and it continues to happen, since they know they can get away with it. If these officers truly felt as though their lives were in danger, they could have shot the victims once in the leg to make them unable to get away or even use a taser to make them fall to the ground. The outcome should never be to take a life, unless they propose an actual threat to the officers life. In order to prevent further deaths, the police department should be held accountable. The department has to accept what the officers are doing and hold each officer accountable, as well as be willing to fix the problem. In each case the police officers claimed that they feared for their lives, yet the evidence proved that there was no definitive justification for them to feel threatened. Police officers sign up for a job that ensures the safety of others, so when something goes wrong, they have to be able to admit fault. Law enforcement leaders should promote a vision in which the use of excessive force is the least desirable outcome. To decrease the rates of African Americans being killed, officers should be under audio and video surveillance. They should be required to wear body cameras, in addition to their dashboard cameras, while on duty. This is a way to decrease all forms of police brutality and protect the civilians. In an 18 month study ran in Rialto, California fifty-four officers were randomly assigned to wear a Taser Axon body camera system .The results of the study showed that shifts without cameras experienced twice as many incidents of use of force as shifts with cameras, and the rate of use of force incidents per 1,000 contacts was reduced by 2.5 times overall as compared to the previous twelve-month period (Ready and Young 447) . This proves that body cameras increase transparency and police legitimacy, improve behavior among both police officers and citizens, and reduce police use of force. If more officers wore body cameras, they would be less likely to shoot African Americans as quickly as they do now, thus preventing deaths. Officers are often not held accountable for their misconduct, and the cameras would provide accountability for both the officers and the civilians. They would be held accountable for their actions because there would be clear proof of what happened. The videos from these cameras would serve very useful for criminal proceedings, as they often show the ugly truth of interactions between black people and the police. The outcomes of the cases previously discussed show that videos from bystanders recording from their phones dont result in indictments or convictions because they are considered circumstantial evidence. Body camera footage is much more powerful and indiscriminate when it comes to presenting evidence in court. The footage from the body cameras could also be beneficial to use during training to show examples of how they should and shouldnt conduct themselves. The body cameras should be worn when responding to a 911 call or when they are making a traffic stop, since that is when most of the problems occur. If the cameras only record these particular moments, this will decrease the amount of footage thats being reviewed for a case. It would also bring down the cost of storing these footages. There are currently no federal r ules for when an officer should and should not turn on their cameras, so it would be up to the police department. All departments should make the firm decision of making the police wear cameras during the times they are interacting with people. If the police officer purposely never turns on their cameras, they should be subject to consequences. If a civilian ends up getting hurt in any way during the time their camera is off, the officer should be suspended as opposed to administrative leave. One issue that may arise is who gets access to the cameras. The public does not necessarily need access to the video footage unless they are a part of the victims family or on the team of detectives. Everyone who is in the courtroom, if it makes it to court, should be able to watch the video because it would be considered evidence. If the officer attempts to fabricate the story in any way, the body camera video could easily settle it. Most police departments are funded by the city council. They can receive a grant from the federal government and give details as to what body cameras can do for the country as a whole in order to increase the chance of receiving funding. Some may also argue that making police wear body cameras is an invasion of privacy since all of the police surroundings while arresting someone will be shown. Faces in the surrounding can be easily made anonymous by being blurred out. There is clear tension between police forces and black communities. Violence being i nflicted onto black people by the police is one of the predominant traumatic events that consistently affects the lives of young black youth and our communities. The impact of police brutality is much broader than simply affecting the individuals who have experienced racialized violence, it is a constant reminder of the historic and current devaluing of Black lives (Alang et al. 664). It sends a signal that there is little hope for justice. Police used to be thought of as protecting us, but now they are thought of us the ones who kill us. Since 2005, only 54 officers have been charged in the thousands of fatal shootings, and the vast majority of those officers were exonerated or acquitted (Carasick 4). These targeted victims are often exploited through their criminal records, physical appearances, or misperceived attributes and that has been used to justify their unlawful deaths. Way too often, police officers take away our lives in a flash due to a perceived threat, although the victims that they deemed to be a threat were unarmed, physically subdued, or lying on the ground. The result of this is the tension and lack of trust within the police and black communities throughout America. Police officers have been abusing their powers and our judicial stem has let them get away with it. Holding these officers responsible for their crimes and using body cameras to prove that they are using unnecessary force can turn these statistics around and lower the rates of deaths due to police brutality.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Lock, Hobbes, and the Federalist Papers - Literature Essay Samples

The Federalist Papers, written by Jay, Madison, and Hamilton, were laid out in order to convince the individual states to ratify the new U.S. Constitution and defend a central government. Many times the words of these Founding Fathers echoed those of 17th century authors Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Federalist #10, #51, and #78, all bear resemblance to either or both of these philosophers, especially Lockes Two Treatises of Government and Hobbes Leviathan. Many of the essays found in the Federalist Papers are in one way or another based on these two gentlemen, and specifically these two works. In Federalist #10, James Madison addresses the problem of factions, and the problematic inability to dissolve these factions. He writes that factions are impossible to dissolve without taking away liberty, thus the best course of action is to take power away from the factions and attempt to control them. This is very similar to Hobbes view of the state of nature. According to Madison, a societ y with unchecked factions is likely to run rampant and wild, such as that described in Leviathan. Madison argues that factions exist to join people with similar passions or ideas and allows them to fight against what they consider wrong. Naturally, this causes animosity and warring between groups, because, according to Hobbes, If any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies; and in their way to the End, endeavor to destroy, or subdue one an other. However, the liberty that allows these factions to exist cannot be taken away. Locke grants all the natural rights of life, health, liberty, and possessions, something which Madison agrees with and defends. The question arises of how to control these factions while still allowing them to have these natural rights. Madisons answer, which resembles Locke, is to have a representative government. A government who gets its power from those it leads. Madison also argues that this government mu st be made up of a large number of people, so that it is less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens. Ideally, this representation of people will be prohibitive to Hobbes constant state of war and violence. Both Madisons Federalist #10 and Lockes Two Treatises of Government agree that in the natural state, factions or groups will emerge against one another, and the best way to control these groups is through a representative governing body, made up of enough people to remain impartial, so that any one faction cannot rise up and gain authoritarian power. Federalist #51 discusses the need for power to be separated amongst various branches of the government, so that one single group cannot rise up and gain total control. Madison states that by so contriving the interior structure of the government as that its several constituent parts may, by their mutual relations, be the means of keeping each other in their proper places . Similarly, as Locke suggests, the government will only have the powers that the people give it. Should the government overstep its bounds and infringe on the natural rights of man, Locke gives the people the right to revolt, because the government has breached a social contract. By spreading the power out and only allowing the government to control that which it is given by the people, the possibility that one group will rise up is eliminated. Federalist #78, written by Alexander Hamilton, discusses the role of the judiciary and the need for a judiciary separated from the executive and legislative branches. Locke supports the development of a judicial branch. In his words, Those who are united into one body, and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them, and punish offenders, are in civil society one with another: but those who have no such common appeal, I mean on earth, are still in the state of nature, each b eing, where there is no other, judge for himself, and executioner; which is, as I have before shewed it, the perfect state of nature. Forming a judicial branch furthers the development of a civil society and takes people away from the state of nature. Hamilton also views the judicial branch as relatively harmless. He states the judicial branch is the least powerful because it cannot attack with success either of the other two. Hamilton proposes that the judicial branch will be the foundation of a limited Constitution. The courts can determine legislation as well as the acts of the executive branch to be unconstitutional, and therefore check the other two branches. This proposition would fall in line with Lockes philosophy of keeping power spread thin in order to limit the influence of factions. Hobbes on the other hand would be less likely to support having a separate judicial branch. Hobbes declares He therefore that is partial in judgement, doth what in him lies to deter men from the use of judges and arbitrators, and consequently, against the fundamental law of nature, is the cause of war. Since the nature of man is greedy, selfish, and cruel, having an impartial judge becomes nearly nonexistent. However, this argument is defeated by Locke, whose separated powers prevents partial judgment. Throughout each of these three essays from The Federalist Papers, Hobbes and Lockes influence is seen time and again. Hamilton, Jay, and Madison, took the different views of the state of nature and found ways to improve Hobbes poor, nasty, brutish, and short life, by incorporating some of Lockes ideas to eliminate the state of nature. By limiting factions, spreading out power, and creating a separate judicial system, the Founding Fathers created a government that gains its power from those it governs and a government, as Locke says, that can govern itself first.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Persuasive Speech Lacrosse Games - 1198 Words

I heard the faint high pitched beeping of my alarm clock as I opened my sleep covered eyes. I attempted to roll out from under my covers but immediately retreated as I felt the chilly spring air touch my skin. While I was mustering up the motivation to get out of bed, I glanced at my alarm clock. â€Å"11:00 AM† it read in boxy, glowing numbers. Had I really slept in that long? I finally rose from my bed, traveling down the stairs to make myself some breakfast. â€Å"Hi, girl!† I greeted my dog where she was waiting for me at the bottom of the stairs. I smiled to myself as I turned on some music, opened the fridge to retrieve some eggs, and turned on the stove. It felt like a fine Saturday morning until I remembered that I had a lacrosse game later†¦show more content†¦This only made me more nervous and upset. The sound of the car shutting off snapped me out of the thoughts and back into reality as my dad alerted me we were at our destination. We walked together to the field, the spikes on the bottom of my cleats clicking with each step on the parking lot pavement. A huge field with onlookers filling the bleachers on the far side came into view, lit up by the soft evening light. I spotted the girls on my team and my tired looking grey-haired coach. Me and my dad split up, me going to warm up with my team and my dad going to sit with the team parents. As I was passing with my teammates I watched the opposing team carefully. I observed how neat their drills were and how accurate their shots and passes were. They all looked so athletic and that really made me doubt myself. How was I supposed to prove to everyone that I was a good player if I had to play against a team this good? What if I mess up and the other team completely destroys my team? The loud buzzer that ended the warm ups sounded and both teams went to their side of the field. My coach called today’s starters out, and luckily he didn’t choose me. Rel ieved, I went to go sit on one of the hard metal chairs they provided for the teams on the sidelines. The chairs were uncomfortable but that didn’t bother me. I had other things on my mind. I sat shivering watching the events of the gameShow MoreRelatedMedia Violence9754 Words   |  40 Pagesenforced by officers. The same simulations are now used in television and video games to impress the youthful audience, but without the same safeguard. In fact, some software on the market enables children to manipulate the scenes in a game to simulate their own environments by scanning in pictures of their school hallways, and morphing the faces of teachers and other students onto the bodies of the targets, making the game more real. Some advertisements for these kinds of software programs even promiseRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesa book that can help transform dry and rather remote concepts into practical reality, and lead to lively class discussions, and even debates. In the gentle environment of the classroom, students can hone their analytical skills and also their persuasive skills—not selling products but selling their ideas—and defend them against critical scrutiny. This is great practice for the arena of business to come. NEW TO THIS EDITION In contrast to the early editions, which examined only notable mistakes

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Supply Chain Management In Indian Retail Industry - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 4018 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Industry Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Retail, one of Indias largest industries, has presently emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries of our times with several players entering the market. Accounting for over 10 per cent of the countrys GDP and around eight per cent of the employment retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward becoming the next boom industry. As the contemporary retail sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex malls and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Supply Chain Management In Indian Retail Industry" essay for you Create order This has also contributed to large scale investments in the real estate sector with major national and global players investing in developing the infrastructure and construction of the retailing business. The trends that are driving the growth of the retail sector in India are ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Low share of organized retailing ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Falling real estate prices ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Increase in disposable income and customer aspiration ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Increase in expenditure for luxury items Another credible factor in the prospects of the retail sector in India is the increase in the young working population. In India, hefty pay-packets, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing working-women population are emerging opportunities in the services sector. These key factors have been the growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India which now boast of retailing almost all the pref erences of life Apparel Accessories, Appliances, Electronics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, Home Office Products, Travel and Leisure and many more. With this the retail sector in India is witnessing a rejuvenation as traditional markets make way for new formats such as departmental stores, hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialty stores. The retailing configuration in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly becoming familiar in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space specially the malls, the Tier II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development plans till 2007 is studied it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139 malls in metros and the remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. The government of states like Delhi and National Capital Region (NCR) are very upbeat about permitting the use of land for commercial development thus increasing the availability of land for retail space; thus making NCR render to 50% of the malls in I ndia. India is being seen as a potential goldmine for retail investors from over the world and latest research has rated India as the top destination for retailers for an attractive emerging retail market. Indias vast middle class and its almost untapped retail industry are key attractions for global retail giants wanting to enter newer markets. Even though India has well over 5 million retail outlets, the country sorely lacks anything that can resemble a retailing industry in the modern sense of the term. This presents international retailing specialists with a great opportunity. The organized retail sector is expected to grow stronger than GDP growth in the next five years driven by changing lifestyles, burgeoning income and favorable demographic outline. Another cap to the retailing industry in India is allowing 51% FDI in single brand outlet. The government is now set to initiate a second wave of reforms in the segment by liberalizing investment norms further. This will no t only favor the retail sector develop in terms of design concept, construction quality and providing modern amenities but will also help in creating a consumer-friendly environment. Retail industry in India is at the crossroads but the future of the consumer markets is promising as the market is growing, government policies are becoming more favorable and emerging technologies are facilitating operations in India. And this upsurge in the retail industry has made India a promising destination for retail investors and at the same time has impelled investments in the real estate sector. As foreign investors cautiously test the Indian Markets for investments in the retail sector, local companies and joint ventures are expected to be more advantageously positioned than the purely foreign ones in the evolving Indias organized retailing industry. Objective of the Study To understand the Importance of Supply Chain Decisions and Supply Chain Modeling Approaches in the retail majors, and try to understand the significant role played by the logistics and the supply chain system of the retailers on the economies of scale of the organization Literature Review Importance of Logistics SCM A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products, and the distribution of these finished products to customers. Supply chains exist in both service and manufacturing organizations, although the complexity of the chain may vary greatly from industry to industry and firm to firm. Below is an example of a very simple supply chain for a single product, where raw material is procured from vendors, transformed into finished goods in a single step, and then transported to distribution centers, and ultimately, customers. Realistic supply chains have multiple end products with shared components, facilities and capacities. The flow of materials is not always along an arbores cent network, various modes of transportation may be considered, and the bill of materials for the end items may be both deep and large. Trad itionally, marketing, distribution, planning, manufacturing, and the purchasing organizations along the supply chain operated independently. These organizations have their own objectives and these are often conflicting. Marketings objectives of high customer service and maximum sales dollars, conflict with manufacturing and distribution goals. Many manufacturing operations are designed to maximize throughput and lower costs with little consideration for the impact on inventory levels and distribution capabilities. Purchasing contracts are often negotiated with very little information beyond historical buying patterns. The result of these factors is that there is not a single, integrated plan for the organizationthere were as many plans as businesses. Clearly, there is need for a mechanism through which these different functions can be integrated together. Supply chain management is a strategy through which such integration can be achieved. Supply chain management is typically vie wed to lie between fully vertically integrated firms, where the entire material flow is owned by a single firm and those where each channel member operates independently. Therefore coordination between the various players in the chain is key in its effective management. Cooper and Ellram [1993] compare supply chain management to a well-balanced and well-practiced relay team. Such a team is more competitive when each player knows how to be positioned for the hand-off. The relationships are the strongest between players who directly pass the baton, but the entire team needs to make a coordinated effort to win the race. Research Problem To understand the intricacies involved with the following aspect of supply chain management Supply Chain Decisions We classify the decisions for supply chain management into two broad categories strategic and operational. As the term implies, strategic decisions are made typically over a longer time horizon. These are closely linked to the corporate strategy (they sometimes {it are} the corporate strategy), and guide supply chain policies from a design perspective. On the other hand, operational decisions are short term, and focus on activities over a day-to-day basis. The effort in these type of decisions is to effectively and efficiently manage the product flow in the strategically planned supply chain. There are four major decision areas in supply chain management: 1) location, 2) production, 3) inventory, and 4) transportation (distribution), and there are both strategic and operational elements in each of these decision areas. Location Decisions The geographic pla cement of production facilities, stocking points, and sourcing points is the natural first step in creating a supply chain. The location of facilities involves a commitment of resources to a long-term plan. Once the size, number, and location of these are determined, so are the possible paths by which the product flows through to the final customer. These decisions are of great significance to a firm since they represent the basic strategy for accessing customer markets, and will have a considerable impact on revenue, cost, and level of service. These decisions should be determined by an optimization routine that considers production costs, taxes, duties and duty drawback, tariffs, local content, distribution costs, production limitations, etc. (See Arntzen, Brown, Harrison and Trafton [1995] for a thorough discussion of these aspects.) Although location decisions are primarily strategic, they also have implications on an operational level. Production Decisions The strategic decisions include what products to produce, and which plants to produce them in, allocation of suppliers to plants, plants to DCs, and DCs to customer markets. As before, these decisions have a big impact on the revenues, costs and customer service levels of the firm. These decisions assume the existence of the facilities, but determine the exact path(s) through which a product flows to and from these facilities. Another critical issue is the capacity of the manufacturing facilitiesand this largely depends on the degree of vertical integration within the firm. Operational decisions focus on detailed production scheduling. These decisions include the construction of the master production schedules, scheduling production on machines, and equipment maintenance. Other considerations include workload balancing, and quality control measures at a production facility. Supply Chain Modeling Approaches Clearly, each of the above two levels of decisions require a different perspective. The strategic decisions are, for the most part, global or all encompassing in that they try to integrate various aspects of the supply chain. Consequently, the models that describe these decisions are huge, and require a considerable amount of data. Often due to the enormity of data requirements, and the broad scope of decisions, these models provide approximate solutions to the decisions they describe. The operational decisions, meanwhile, address the day to day operation of the supply chain. Therefore the models that describe them are often very specific in nature. Due to their narrow perspective, these models often consider great detail and provide very good, if not optimal, solutions to the operational decisions. To facilitate a concise review of the literature, and at the same time attempting to accommodate the above polarity in modeling, we divide the modeling approaches into three areas N etwork Design, Rough Cut methods, and simulation based methods. The network design methods, for the most part, provide normative models for the more strategic decisions. These models typically cover the four major decision areas described earlier, and focus more on the design aspect of the supply chain; the establishment of the network and the associated flows on them. Rough cut methods, on the other hand, give guiding policies for the operational decisions. These models typically assume a single site (i.e., ignore the network) and add supply chain characteristics to it, such as explicitly considering the sites relation to the others in the network. Simulation methods are a method by which a comprehensive supply chain model can be analyzed, considering both strategic and operational elements however, as with all simulation models; one can only evaluate the effectiveness of a pre specified policy rather than develop new policy. It is the traditional question of What If? versus Whats Best? Network Design Methods As the very name suggests, these methods determine the location of production, stocking, and sourcing facilities, and paths the product(s) take through them. Such methods tend to be large scale, and used generally at the inception of the supply chain. The earliest work in this area, although the term supply chain was not in vogue, was by Geoffrion and Graves [1974]. They introduce a multi-commodity logistics network design model for optimizing annualized finished product flows from plants to the DCs to the final customers. Geoffrion and Powers [1993] later give a review of the evolution of distribution strategies over the past twenty years, describing how the descendants of the above model can accommodate more echelons and cross commodity detail. Breitman and Lucas [1987] attempt to provide a framework for a comprehensive model of a production-distribution system, PLANETS, that is used to decide what products to produce, where and how to produce it, which markets to pursue and what resources to use. Parts of this ambitious project were successfully implemented at General Motors. Cohen and Lee [1985] develop a conceptual framework for manufacturing strategy analysis, where they describe a series of stochastic sub- models, that considers annualized product flows from raw material vendors via intermediate plants and distribution echelons to the final customers. They use heuristic methods to link and optimize these sub- models. They later give an integrated and readable exposition of their models and methods in Cohen and Lee [1988]. Cohen and Lee [1989] present a normative model for resource deployment in a global manufacturing and distribution network. Global after-tax profit (profit-local taxes) is maximized through the design of facility network and control of material flows within the network. The cost structure consists of variable and fixed costs for material procurement, production, distribution and transportation. They validate the model by applying it to analyze the global manufacturing strategies of a personal computer manufacturer. Finally, Arntzen, Brown, Harrison, and Trafton [1995] provide the most comprehensive deterministic model for supply chain management. The objective function minimizes a combination of cost and time elements. Examples of cost elements include purchasing, manufacturing, pipeline inventory, transportation costs between various sites, duties, and taxes. Time elements include manufacturing lead times and transit times. Unique to this model was the explicit consideration of duty and their recovery as the product flowed through different countries. Implementation of this model at the Digital Equipment Corporation has produced spectacular results savings in the order of $100 million dollars. Rough Cut Methods These models form the bulk of the supply chain literature, and typically deal with the more operational or tactical decisions. Most of the integrative research (from a supply chain context) in the literature seems to take on an inventory management perspective. In fact, the term Supply Chain first appears in the literature as an inventory management approach. The thrust of the rough cut models is the development of inventory control policies, considering several levels or echelons together. These models have come to be known as multi-level or multi-echelon inventory control models. For a review the reader is directed to Vollman et al. [1992]. Multi-echelon inventory theory has been very successfully used in industry. Cohen et al. [1990] describe OPTIMIZER, one of the most complex models to date to manage IBMs spare parts inventory. They develop efficient algorithms and sophisticated data structures to achieve large scale systems integration. Significance of the Study The key aspects of retail marketing are an attitude of mind. The 2004 NRF Foundation/American Express 2004 Customer Service survey showed 99 percent of shoppers report customer service being important when deciding to make a purchase, NRF reported. The most important elements of good customer service to traditional shoppers revolve around retail employees and the store environment, according to the survey, with nearly two thirds of shoppers finding it extremely important for retail employees to be courteous (67 percent) and treat shoppers like valued customers (65 percent). The report also stated consumers dislike being pressured to buy merchandise (69 percent) and find it extremely important that employees are available to ask for help (61 percent). Environmental factor for them is a neat and clean store, which 60 percent of shoppers said is extremely important. Retail marketing decisions are driven by what the shoppers need and want. Consumers are individuals who purchase products or services for personal consumption and in the retail context it is critical to realize that management can not be effective unless it has an understanding of the process of how retail consumers make decisions and act in relation to retail products. Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2000) define the initial step of this decision-making process as need recognition in terms of emotional and psychological needs recognition. However the extent to which the consumer intends to resolve the problem depends on the relative perceived importance of the problem to them and the degree of difference between the current and desired situation. If the problem recognition is of a sufficiently strong degree then information search and evaluation of alternatives stages will occur. What the customers regard as value and what they buy is decisive. It can therefore be seen that potential customers go through a series of stages before they choose a brand or product to purchase. Hence branding strategies used by retailers need to be aware of elements in these first stages which might have an effect on later choices. Additionally a determinant of the degree to which customers evaluate a brand is their level of involvement, i.e. high levels of involvement mean extensive evaluation processes, (Hawkins, Best and Coney, 1989). Price is often seen as an indicator of involvement level because people spend more time searching and comparing prices. The essential elements While many elements may make up a firms retail marketing mix, the essential elements may include  ·Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Store location,  ·Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  merchandise assortments  ·Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Store ambience,  ·Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  customer service,  ·Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  price,  ·Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Communication with customers Research Methodology Research methodologies play a vital role in defining the effectiveness and success of the research carried out. I have used Case study approach in understanding the difficulties that have occurred. Methodology in the process of research can be defined as a framework which helps us in understanding the research process or they can be defined as the mechanisms utilized for collecting the data for interpretation to deliver the best outcomes. Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2007) states thatÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- the design of the research is covered by the notion of fitness for purposeÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- which help in determining the methodology and research design. The process of research is an urge of searching for the facts that leads to a path of initiating a new technology/knowledge. Paradigm of Research Research paradigm may be defined as the assumptions made by an individual in order to guide him to deliver the best outcomes. The paradigm of the research can be understood based on the three levels The research methodology is well understood by the following assumptions: The three research paradigms which are considered important to conduct the research effectively by (Oates, 2006) are stated below: Positivism Constructivism and Critical Theory. Research Methodologies used: Qualitative Vs Quantitative A research can be either of the forms of the inquiry I, e Qualitative or Quantitative. Qualitative research method is the one that concentrates on identifying the complexity in the nature and ate also attempts in answering the questions WHY? And HOW? This kind of researches can be done only by the humans participating in the real world context mainly because of the ability of the humans to understand, confine and then co-relate them in real practice. Quantitative research method follows a very organized approach. Quantitative methods are basically utilized to understand the depth of the problem which answers the questions like HOW MANY? Inductive and Deductive: Inductive way of research is the one that comprises of the assumptions made previously about a topic and theories are build later taking this assumption as the base which means a solution is developed based on the assumption made rather than testing to prove whether or not the assumption made i s correct or wrong, where as the deductive approach comprises of the established hypothesis which is chosen initially and tested to verify the truth in it. Oates (2006) and Hyde (2000) state that both the inductive and deductive approaches make use of qualitative and quantitative process and several methods of collecting data during their research. The research approach that has been chosen for my dissertation concentrates on getting the inputs from various participants/victims (such as students, a technical consultant and a) in order to deliver a solution from the improvements that have generated from the previous problems. The current research makes use of the inductive way of approach for proposing an effective solution for the difficulties in the research depending on the observations, action and the practice. It utilizes not just quantitative but also qualitative inquiry modes. Suitable methodologies for this research  · Action research: (Elliott, 1978) has stated that action research ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢combines the diagnosis with reflection and focuses on the issues that are practical identified by the participants which are complex and at the same time which are capable of being changedÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬-. A new concept has emerged about how the action research can find out several ways of integrating themselves to obtain the sustainable organizational development (Mc Niff and Whitehead 2000). Case study approach: This kind of research methodology is mainly used for building the theories to analyze the complex problems. Case study approach gives a clear understanding of the possible events like the organization, people and the social movement. Case study is defined as the ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢the study of a complexity of a specific instance for understanding the activities in the context of the real worldÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- (Helen Simons, 2009). A case study approach focuses on the real world context in a much detailed way. It takes a specific case in the firm or an institution rather than testing the generalized theory. The four stages involved in this approach: Design Conduct Analyze and Developing the conclusions and implications. (Yin.R,1994) Data collection: There are several ways of collecting the data as stated by (Cohen,Manion and Morrison, 2007) and supported by (Elliot, 1991) are as follows: Questionnaires Conducting tests Interviews Role play Accounts This type of data collecting methods are mainly used when the researcher needs the following aspects (Oates, 2006) Necessity to acquire the clear view When asking the complex questions using open-ended method or whose logic should be expressed differently to different individuals. To express the feelings, emotions and experiences which cannot be observed easily when using predefined questionnaire method. Conclusion At present most retailers in India comprise invested majorly into the front end, but comparatively little on the back end and supply chain. Still in countries like the USA, Germany and England, where organized retail is highly developed; supply chain efficiency is a major unease. The trend of retail sector in India is different from other countries around the world. The organized retail sector in India is highly fragmented and there are huge inefficiencies in the supply chain. In India, Future group derives significant economies of scale in managing their supply chain. With more than 170000 products, the company maintains a strong supplier relationship in a partnership mode, avoiding the exploitative supplier buyer transactional philosophy. The IT enabled back-end operations and supply chain management increases the reliability and efficiency of the business. As part of the operation, Future Group is also undertaking to reduce its warehousing costs through a consolidation pr ocess. In a country like India, where most retail stores are located in the heart of the city-where rents are high and storage space is scarce-supply chain management has even more serious business implications. Future Logistics now handles two-and-a-half million SKUs (or stock keeping units) a day across the Future Groups various retail formats around the country. By 2010, this number is expected to increase to more than 30 million SKUs a day. Even with 98% accuracy, some 600,000 pieces will not be delivered correctly, resulting in an estimated sales loss of more than Rs 4 crore a day. The biggest driver in consumer logistics is going to be zero defect in managing the supply chain. While infrastructure, technology, automation, processes and people will all play an important role, zero defect can only be achieved through vertical integration across the entire supply chain-from raw material supply, production, wholesale and retail. The different parts of the supply chain will no l onger be able to work in silos as they do today. Need for efficient logistics Before heading for transformation in-depth of logistics, let us first have a fleeting look through the need of good logistics system in India: Ensure coordination: To ensure perfect coordination with in various units of a retail venture like suppliers, manufacturers, and vendors. Perfect timings: To ensure that consumers get the right product at the right time and at the right place. Continuous supply: To ensure resourceful supply to retail stores across various geographic areas is seamless and consistent. Continuous growth: To achieve profitable and sustainable growth of retail operations in the long run. Optimum inventory: To achieve optimal inventory levels and reduce wastage of products.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Steve Greenberg And Michael Weinreb - 892 Words

Authors have many strategies when it comes to winning over their reader to their side on a topic even if it means that they will target their opponent to make them look bad. In the articles by Steve Greenberg and Michael Weinreb we will look at the way they try to get the reader to join into their opinion of the topic by appeal to the persons logos, pathos, and ethos. By doing looking at the articles and breaking them down we can see how the author makes his argument by using rhetorical strategies and logical fallacies. The authors start off by using a logical fallacy, ad hominem, to try to get their readers on their side emotionally and ethically. In the article written by Steve Greenberg, in the first sentence of his article he changes the name of his friend to Ogre. This is just because his friend is a cardinal fan and by his mood the reader can tell that he does not think fondly of the cubs. This makes the reader think of his friend as an ugly beast that does not think to logica lly. This brings the reader to his side, because when they hear what the Ogre has to say they will not take it serious. They will associate what the friend says with a half-witted beast that is a disgusting, so whatever is said cannot be a correct. On the other hand, the article written by Michael Weinreb uses ad hominem to do the same thing as Steve but he calls out Jim Harbaugh for his crazy tactics. In his article he describes Harbaugh as bat feces and a freak because of his actions in

Racial Prejudice An Understanding Of Prejudice And...

Racial Prejudice A child is born without any preconceived notions or beliefs, they are Society’s projects to mold and shape for the future. From the day a child is born he or she begins to learn beliefs that will be carried through life. In fact, according to Stephanie Pappas â€Å"Kids develop an understanding of prejudice and discrimination in a fairly predictable manner. Between the ages of 3 and 6, they begin to understand and use stereotypes† (Pappas, â€Å"Young Kids Take Parents’ Word on Prejudice†). Additionally, Angela Oswalt states â€Å"Children who observe their parents making racist, prejudiced remarks or acting in prejudiced and discriminatory ways learn to be racist, prejudiced and discriminatory in those same ways. Such children may find themselves discriminating against others â€Å"just because† (Oswalt, â€Å"Prejudice†). I was born in South Georgia during the 1960’s and attended elementary school in a small predominately white town. There was a segregation between the white and African American parts of town with separate schools, grocery stores, and churches. During these years we were not allowed to have any friends that were not white. My parents always stated that they were not prejudice but their actions spoke to the contrary. Bush 2 During the 1970’s the family moved to Maryland where communities and schools were completely integrated. This time was my first experience with children of other races, cultures and religious beliefs. I felt comfortable with theShow MoreRelatedPrejudice Or Pre Judgement Is An Age Old, World Wide, Unavoidable Problem1075 Words   |  5 PagesBrandon McClean Ms. Chang English 9-1 18 April 2016 Overcoming Prejudice Prejudice or pre-judgement is an age-old, world-wide, unavoidable problem in society. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee describes the negative impact prejudice can have on others. Atticus Finch, Tom Robinson and Arthur â€Å"Boo† Radley all face differing forms of discrimination because in their own way, each one is different than the typical citizen of Maycomb County. While trying to help others and do the right thing, allRead MoreSociological Theories Of Prejudice And Racism1645 Words   |  7 PagesSociological Theories of Prejudice and Racism Functionalist theory argues for race and ethnic relations to be functional and thus supply to the melodic conduct and strength of society, racial and ethnic minorities must assimilate into that society. Assimilation is a process by which a minority becomes socially, economically, and culturally absorbed within the dominant society. 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Barbie Doll Essay Research Paper Margie Pearcy free essay sample

Barbie Doll Essay, Research Paper Margie Pearcy # 8217 ; s Barbie Doll Margie Pearcy # 8217 ; s Barbie Doll inside informations the image that society undertakings upon and expects from its immature female population. From an early age these immature adult females struggle to conform to the criterions that society has defined for them. The consequences frequently are black, taking to emotional struggles that are frequently hard if non impossible to decide. Beautiful, flawless dolls such as Barbie are often the first beginning of association that small misss have with the values placed on them by society. Parents give small yearlings dolls, illumination ranges, and cherry-candy coloured lip rouges ( 2-4 ) for toies. This would look guiltless plenty, but already the guidelines are being set for what society at big expects misss to be. At this immature age, small misss can non truly differ from what is expected since they are under the complete influence of their parents. Engulfed with these types of nowadayss, the kid is already larning her function in society. In pubescence, during these most disruptive old ages, the miss kid is covering a barbarous blow by a equal who tells her she has a large olfactory organ and fat legs ( 5-6 ) . Here we see the beginning of the struggle that will blight the immature miss. The second of stanza of Barbie Doll demonstrates the interior struggle these immature misss are sing as they become acutely cognizant of how different they may be from what society perceives as the ideal female. Although a miss can be healthy and intelligent, it is non expected for her to possess the physical qualities of strong weaponries and back, abundant sexual thrust and manual sleight ( 8-9 ) . These epitomize male traits, and immature misss begin to comprehend these as negative and unnatural for themselves. Feeling less than Page 2 worthy or valuable, the miss feels she owes society an apology for possessing these features ( 10 ) . Percy drive the point place by composing, everyone saw a fat olfactory organ on large legs ( 11 ) . This line emphasizes the ugliness the miss feels by non mensurating up to be the perfect or ideal female, a criterion set by society. At this point, the miss begins the battle to accomplish the ideal female character, that Barbie Doll image with the perfect face, hair, and unrealistic figure. Not merely does society set criterions for physical properties, it besides dictates stereotyped behaviour of the female toward members of the opposite sex. The miss is told to play coy, exhorted to come on hearty, exercising, diet, smile, and wheedle ( 12-14 ) to pull work forces. She is to use manners that are actuall Ys fake, non a true representation of what she is on the interior. In add-on to experiencing she must look beautiful and thin, the miss is pressured to move in a pretentious mode to be accepted by society as an ideal member of her sex. She must play up to work forces and state and make things that will bolster the male self-importance and solidify her function as the ultimate female. This type of programming instills a sense of losing one’s inner ego. Her good nature wore out like a fan belt ( 15-16 ) symbolizes this loss of ego and a alteration in the girl’s attitude. As a consequence of compromising or losing her true ego to the demands of society, the immature girl/woman is confronted with the realisation that life this bogus being has left her alone, empty, and in hurting. Dejected and depressed, she symbolically cut off her nose and her legs and offered them up ( 17-18 ) . The girl’s emotional agony is so intense that she chooses decease as the sol ution to stop her hurting and to counterbalance for losing her true individuality, the Page 3 one society failed to acknowledge and raising. In the 4th and concluding stanza of Barbie Doll Pearcy utilizes dry imagination to convey to the readers the senseless mode in which society positions immature adult females. The miss is seen in her coffin with the mortician # 8217 ; s cosmetics painted on, a turned-up putty olfactory organ ( 20-21 ) . These images continue the travesty and hide the effects that society has inflicted on its victim. Her caretakers have her dressed in a pink and white nightgown ( 22 ) in order to keep the ultimate feminine image. Tragically and ironically, the miss is recognized as reasonably merely in decease as noted in line 23. Even here, nevertheless, society fails to see the existent individual. They see the image that a ill-conceived society has created. The writer writes, Consummation at last ( 24 ) to convey to us that in decease the miss has achieved society # 8217 ; s end for her, to model her into a existent life Barbie Doll. To every adult female a happy stoping ( 25 ) continues society # 8217 ; s misrepresentation that a adult female is happy and fulfilled if she possesses physical beauty and Acts of the Apostless in a certain mode. Barbie Doll offers a sad but realistic position of the drastic effects that can happen from life in a society that Judgess immature adult females by unrealistic, false, and superficial values. Too frequently society fails immature adult females by declining to acknowledge, appreciate, and value true beauty, that which lies in immature misss # 8217 ; Black Marias, liquors, and characters. These are the lone true things that make a immature lady beautiful, and the lone qualities that can supply permanent felicity. 31d